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Table 6 Peak deviation & Settling time for GOA optimized PDF plus (1 + PI) controller with different loading conditions

From: Grasshopper optimization algorithm optimized multistage controller for automatic generation control of a power system with FACTS devices

Loading Condition Peak Overshoot (+) Peak Undershoot (−) Settling Time in seconds
f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu) f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu) f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu)
Nominal 0.000740 0.000735 0.000551 0.007415 0.007567 0.006845 34.22 37.07 38.12
+  25% 0.001748 0.001654 0.001726 0.009492 0.009536 0.009445 41.92 41.74 42.20
- 25% 0.001600 0.001611 0.001633 0.009544 0.009483 0.009418 41.53 40.91 41.53
+  50% 0.002308 0.002278 0.002236 0.009575 0.009551 0.009554 42.02 41.89 42.23
- 50% 0.001582 0.001576 0.001586 0.009531 0.009548 0.009493 40.98 41.48 41.84
+  75% 0.001844 0.001802 0.001852 0.009551 0.009475 0.009548 41.23 41.96 42.39
- 75% 0.001485 0.001553 0.001513 0.009547 0.009546 0.009557 40.58 40.35 41.02