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Table 3 Optimum parameters of PID controller for test system-2

From: Impact of communication time delays on combined LFC and AVR of a multi-area hybrid system with IPFC-RFBs coordinated control strategy

Parameters Optimization algorithms
DE-AEFA hFA-PS [21] AEFA IMC [4] ICA [20] DE ABC [18]
KP1 3.9957 3.9875 3.4898 4.2105 2.9105 2.7060 2.8147
KP2 4.0138 3.9085 3.4387 4.2105 2.7925 2.8903 2.6324
KI1 2.7416 2.9134 2.0357 7.5328 2.6676 1.9767 1.9134
KI2 2.9292 2.6432 2.1419 7.5328 1.9936 1.7630 1.8003
KD1 2.0935 2.1712 1.1270 1.2936 0.0524 0.9157 0.6160
KD2 1.9569 2.0975 1.2697 1.2936 0.0753 1.0136 0.6551
ISE 0.0344 0.0632 0.0972 0.2769 0.9649 1.0540 1.1299
Settling time:∆f1 2.506 2.930 3.985 4.758 7.788 17.91 23.64
Settling time:∆PTie 2.335 4.107 4.587 6.323 9.113 15.72 21.79
Settling time:∆f2 2.237 3.657 4.522 8.009 9.059 12.64 22.69