Skip to main content

Table 2 Optimum parameters of PID controller for test system-1

From: Impact of communication time delays on combined LFC and AVR of a multi-area hybrid system with IPFC-RFBs coordinated control strategy

Parameters Optimization algorithms
DE-AEFA HGA-PSO [3] AEFA GWO [2] BSA [19] DE PSO [17]
KP1 1.9757 1.6476 1.5447 1.2278 0.9160 0.9296 0.7579
KP2 1.8296 1.7762 1.6413 1.2467 0.9398 1.0021 0.8779
KI1 0.0098 0.0445 0.0358 0.0050 0.0550 0.0209 0.3016
KI2 0.0137 0.0412 0.0091 0.0196 0.0012 0.0190 0.3016
KD1 1.0621 0.7210 0.9074 0.9149 0.7291 0.5860 0.1263
KD2 1.1428 0.7635 1.0911 0.8536 0.6922 0.5747 0.1372
ISE 0.1043 0.4109 0.6097 0.8725 1.0857 1.0943 1.7010
Settling time:∆f1 2.724 4.141 4.890 7.485 7.981 8.962 9.752
Settling time:∆PTie 5.126 6.207 8.470 8.573 8.738 9.323 9.693
Settling time:∆f2 3.214 4.276 4.991 5.184 8.275 8.708 9.752