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Table 1 List of symbols used in Fig. 1

From: A novel complex current ratio-based technique for transmission line protection

Parameter Description
ĨM and ĨN Measured phasor currents at bus M and N
\( {\overset{\sim }{E}}_M \) and \( {\overset{\sim }{E}}_N \) Equivalent source voltages at bus M and N
Zl Total positive-sequence line impedance (Ω)
Zm and Zn Equivalent source impedances (Ω) at bus M and N
RF Fault resistance (Ω)
δ Power angle between \( {\overset{\sim }{E}}_M \) and \( {\overset{\sim }{E}}_N \)
d Fault distance from bus M to fault point (pu)
\( {\overset{\sim }{I}}_{Sum} \) Phasor summation of the two-end currents measured at bus M and N.
F1 and F2 Represents internal and external faults of protecting zone (line M-N).
GPS Global Positioning System
R Relay
CB Circuit Breaker