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Table 1 Classification of demand response programs

From: Prediction and assessment of demand response potential with coupon incentives in highly renewable power systems

Customer typeDirect load control (centralized)Market-based
Large commercial and industrialResearch papers [8,9,10]Energy-management systems [12]
Small residentialDirect load control programs [11]Variable rate retail plans [13], CPP [14], EnergyCoupon [15]