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Table 2 Parameters of P&O, PSO and FP algorithm

From: Maximum power point tracking of PV system under partial shading conditions through flower pollination algorithm

Parameter P&O PSO FP
Initial duty cycle 40% 25%, 45%, 70% Random duty cycle between 20% and 80%
m 3 3
C 1max 1.4
C1min 1
C 2max 1.8
C 2min 1
W max 1
W min 0.1
d 1%