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Table 1 Parameters of power systems

From: Real-time vehicle-to-grid control for frequency regulation with high frequency regulating signal

Parameters Area-A Area-B
Maximum load capacity (MW) 20,000 10,000
Proportional and integral gains 10.01 10.01
Time constant for LFC (s) 4 4
Frequency bias factor (pu/Hz) 0.15 0.075
Inertia constant (pu.s) 0.32 0.16
Load damping coefficient (pu/Hz) 0.04 0.02
Synchronizing torque coefficient (Hz) 0.04 0.04
Dead band of primary frequency detection (s) 0.033 0.033
Time constant for frequency detection (s) 0.1 0.1
Communication delay (s) 1 1
Dead band of area control error (MW) 10 10
Ramp speed (MW/min) 200 100