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Table 6 Comparison for the estimated fault distance (km) and percentage error in fault location (%) for a single line to ground fault (a-g), with a fault resistance (R f ) = 0.1Ω at different fault locations (2 km to 18 km i.e., FDR varied from 0.1 to 0.9 p.u., respectively), on the distribution line DL AB in the micro grid operating under grid connected mode, subjected to various levels of DG penetrations

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

l. No. Fault Type Fault Resistance (in Ω) Fault Distance Ratio (0–1) [×100 in %] Faulted
Distribution Line
Total line Distance
(in km)
Actual Fault Distance (km) DG status Conventional DFT Technique Proposed TFR technique
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error in Fault Location (in %)
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error in Fault Location (in %)
1 a-g 0.1 0.1 DL AB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 on 2.0681 0.3412 2.0112 0.0622
2 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0944 0.4731 4.0226 0.1121
3 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.1261 0.6353 6.0400 0.2024
4 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.1639 0.8254 8.0640 0.3243
5 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.208 1.0412 10.095 0.4863
6 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.2614 1.3114 12.1360 0.6826
7 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.3241 1.6262 14.1866 0.9376
8 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.3989 1.9959 16.2495 1.2522
9 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.4888 2.4421 18.3258 1.6334
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 on
DG 4 off
2.0436 0.2180 1.9892 0.0542
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0479 0.2395 3.9785 0.1076
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0527 0.2633 5.9681 0.1594
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0580 0.2902 7.9581 0.2097
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0640 0.3198 9.9485 0.2577
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.0705 0.3525 11.9393 0.3034
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.0777 0.3886 13.9305 0.3475
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.0857 0.4283 15.9221 0.3897
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.0944 0.4721 17.9140 0.4300
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 on
DG 3 4 off
2.0283 0.1415 2.0004 0.0018
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0364 0.1820 4.0033 0.0167
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0458 0.2289 6.0083 0.0413
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0557 0.2786 8.0143 0.0717
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0660 0.3302 10.0212 0.1059
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.0766 0.3830 12.0285 0.1425
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.0873 0.4365 14.0362 0.1809
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.0985 0.4923 16.0445 0.2225
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.1110 0.5551 18.0546 0.2730
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 on
DG 2 3 4 off
2.0506 0.2531 1.9950 0.0248
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0600 0.3001 3.9884 0.0582
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0694 0.3470 5.9816 0.0922
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0793 0.3963 7.9756 0.1221
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0903 0.4514 9.9710 0.1450
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.1030 0.5150 11.9684 0.1579
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.1183 0.5917 13.9685 0.1576
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.1370 0.6850 15.9718 0.1411
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.1584 0.7922 17.9770 0.1150
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 off 2.0226 0.1130 2.0045 0.0227
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0309 0.1545 4.0145 0.0723
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0371 0.1853 6.0231 0.1154
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0397 0.1983 8.0286 0.1431
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0379 0.1893 10.0300 0.1499
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.0310 0.1548 12.0266 0.1328
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.0184 0.0922 14.0174 0.0871
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.0019 0.0094 15.9995 0.0025
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 17.9733 0.1335 17.9787 0.1065