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Table 5 Comparison of the relay trip timings (in ms) for full cycle window and half cycle window calculations for the microgrid subjected to various types of operating modes (GCM and IM), fault types, fault resistances, and faulted distribution lines, respectively

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

Sl. no. Microgrid operation mode Fault Type Fault Resistance (in Ω) Fault Distance Ratio
(0–1) [×100] in %
Faulted
Line
Relay trip timing (in ms)
Full Window Calculation
Relay trip timing (in ms)
Half Window Calculation
Phase a Phase b Phase c Phase a Phase b Phase c
1 GCM
(DG 1234
ON)
a-g 0.1 0.8 DL AB 10.6771 - - 6.5104 - -
2 b-g 1 0.7 - 9.8958 - - 5.7292 -
3 c-g 10 0.6 - - 9.8958 - - 5.7292
4 ab-g 0.1 0.5 DL AE 10.9375 10.4167 - 6.7708 6.2500 -
5 bc-g 1 0.4 - 10.1563 9.8958 - 5.9896 5.7292
6 ca-g 10 0.3 12.2396 - 9.8958 8.0729 - 5.7292
7 abc-g 0.1 0.2 DL BE 10.9375 10.1563 9.3750 6.7708 5.9896 5.2083
8 abc-g 1 0.1 10.6771 9.8958 9.3750 6.5104 5.7292 5.2083
9 abc-g 10 0.5 10.9375 10.4167 9.8958 6.7708 6.2500 5.7292
10 GCM
(DG 1234
OFF)
a-g 0.1 0.1 DL AB 9.8958 - - 5.7292 - -
11 b-g 1 0.2 - 9.8958 - - 5.7292 -
12 c-g 10 0.3 - - 9.6354 - - 5.4687
13 ab-g 0.1 0.4 DL AE 10.6771 10.1563 - 6.5104 5.9896 -
14 bc-g 1 0.5 - 9.8958 9.6354 - 5.7292 5.4687
15 ca-g 10 0.6 9.6354 - 9.6354 5.4687 - 5.4687
16 abc-g 0.1 0.7 DL BE 9.8958 10.6771 9.6354 5.7292 6.5104 5.4687
17 abc-g 1 0.8 9.8958 10.4167 9.6354 5.7292 6.2500 5.4687
18 abc-g 10 0.5 9.6354 10.9375 9.6354 5.4687 6.7708 5.4687
19 IM
(DG 1234
ON)
a-g 0.1 0.1 DL BC 13.0208 - - 8.8542 - -
20 b-g 1 0.2 - 10.1563 - - 5.9896 -
21 c-g 10 0.3 - - 11.4583 - - 7.2917
22 ab-g 0.1 0.4 DL CD 9.8958 9.1146 - 5.7292 4.9479 -
23 bc-g 1 0.5 - 9.1146 9.1146 - 4.9479 4.9479
24 ca-g 10 0.6 11.4583 - 9.6354 7.2917 - 5.4687
25 abc-g 0.1 0.7 DL BE 12.7604 9.8958 9.6354 8.5937 5.7292 5.4687
26 abc-g 1 0.8 12.7604 9.8958 9.6354 8.5937 5.7292 5.4687
27 abc-g 10 0.5 12.5000 9.8958 9.6354 8.3333 5.7292 5.4687
28 IM
(DG 1
ON)
a-g 0.1 0.8 DL BC 11.1979 - - 7.0313 - -
29 b-g 1 0.7 - 14.8438 - - 10.6771 -
30 c-g 10 0.6 - - 11.1979 - - 7.0313
31 ab-g 0.1 0.5 DL CD 11.1979 10.4167 - 7.0313 6.2500 -
32 bc-g 1 0.4 - 10.4167 9.8958 - 6.2500 5.7292
33 ca-g 10 0.3 10.4167 - 10.4167 6.25 - 6.25
34 abc-g 0.1 0.2 DL BE 10.1563 9.6354 10.1563 5.9896 5.4687 5.9896
35 abc-g 1 0.1 9.8958 9.6354 10.1563 5.7292 5.7292 5.7292
36 abc-g 10 0.5 13.5417 9.8958 10.1563 9.375 5.7292 5.9896