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Table 2 Effect of variation of penetration level of the DG’s on the magnitude of fault current (differential and average) at distribution Line DL AB for a triple line to ground fault (abc-g) fault on at fault distance ratio (FDR) = 0.6 and fault resistance (R f ) = 20 Ω, respectively, where the microgrid is operated in grid connected mode

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

DG Status Phase max (I Differential)
(in A)
max (I Average)
(in A)
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
All DGs ON a 0.7879 2181.7049 188.4454 151.6977
b 0.9295 2359.4328 107.5856 151.6977
c 1.0478 1751.8088 136.7386 151.6977
DG1 Off a 0.8203 2033.7771 166.0091 307.9775
b 0.7245 1890.6872 126.1311 307.9775
c 0.6321 604.9933 254.0886 307.9775
DG1and
DG2 Off
a 0.7954 1313.1837 235.6975 218.5847
b 0.7957 2083.7611 235.3725 218.5847
c 0.7951 1575.1316 235.4878 218.5847
DG1
DG2 and
DG3 Off
a 0.6325 915.9152 287.6661 286.0211
b 0.6325 1490.3402 287.4704 286.0211
c 0.6328 1185.5886 287.2721 286.0211
All DGs OFF a 0.4747 680.1778 320.6070 320.6017
b 0.4750 938.8942 320.8858 320.6017
c 0.4748 757.9855 320.8421 320.6017