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Table 9 Adaptive protection schemes and modification of traditional protection

From: Transmission line protection challenges influenced by inverter-based resources: a review

References Protection function to be improve Proposed protection scheme Advantages Disadvantages
[62] Distance Combination of voltage drop and a new directional element and is communication assisted Fast operation and reliable Communication wire is required, more costly
[39] Distance Modification in the POTT tele-protection scheme Easy implementation, fast operation and reliable Requires a channel of communication, more costly
[33] Distance Use time delay and zero-sequence Avoid using negative-sequence Drag zero-sequence problems
[40] Distance Use differential protection Fast operation More costly, no back-up protection
[41] Distance Resets distance parameters based on Zbus This method may be safe No adaptive in nature
[63] Distance Adaptive coefficient and equivalent sequence impedance Adaptive in nature Logic circuit is more complicated due to complex calculation
[64] Distance Adaptive scheme using voltage and current information Adaptive in nature Complex calculation
[51] Distance Use zero-sequence from transformer Avoid using negative-sequence Drag zero-sequence problems
[43] Distance Adaptive scheme based on the measurement information on common connection points Adaptive in nature Implementation of logic circuit is more complicated
[45] Distance A new transmission line pilot protection scheme based on the accurate distributed line model Easy implementation and fast operation Communication wire is required, more costly
[68] Distance, differential Use of a modified differential protection scheme Fast operation More costly, no back-up protection
[53] Differential, phase selection Use auxiliary undervoltage components. Use zero-sequence Avoid using negative-sequence Drag zero-sequence problems
[55] Directional element Line angle modification in positive-sequence Adaptive in nature and it may be safe Complex calculation
[67] Phase selection Use the weighting of different parameters (V, I, ΔV, ΔI, Z, etc.) Easy implementation and adaptive in nature Complete study is required
[65] Directional element, phase selector Based on voltage (Undervoltage) Easy implementation It is not entirely safe because it only relies on tension
[66] Directional element Based on reactive power flow Easy implementation It is not entirely safe because it only relies on reactive power, no adaptive in nature