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Table 8 Causes and effects on directional and negative-sequence overcurrent protection due to IBR

From: Transmission line protection challenges influenced by inverter-based resources: a review

Directional (32) and negative-sequence overcurrent protection
  References Technology Cause Effect
Directional element protection [55] IBR Strategies inverter control Distortion signals, abnormal angle between V and I
[59] WF-IV Control the phase angle Malfunction of phase comparison
Negative-sequence overcurrent protection [50, 60] IBR Limited current, inverter control Activation threshold. Different angles between V2 and I2
[51] IBR Insufficient amount of negative-sequence The overcurrent function will not be activated
[57] WF Specification of the amount of negative-sequence in the GCs The increased amount of the negative-sequence influences the amount of the positive-sequence
  [61] WFs Insufficient amount of negative-sequence Fault response interferes with directionality