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Table 5 Influence of variables on principal functions and element protection

From: Transmission line protection challenges influenced by inverter-based resources: a review

Protection function Magnitude Angular offset between Shift angle of each phase Magnitude and angle Percentage of usage
I1 V1 Z1 I2 V2 I0 V0 (I1,V1) (I2,V2) (I0,V0) (I2,V0) (IABC,VABC) (IL,VR) %
(a)        69.2
(b)             15.3
(c)         69.2
(d)             38.4
(e)              30.7
(f)              23.0
  1. (a) Distance protection (21)—impedance calculation and fault detector threshold
  2. (b) Differential protection (87)
  3. (c) Directional element protection (32)
  4. (d) Fault-type identification logic, phase selection logic (FIDS)
  5. (e) Negative-sequence protection
  6. (f) Overcurrent protection