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Table 10 Protection schemes based on transient signals and/or artificial intelligence

From: Transmission line protection challenges influenced by inverter-based resources: a review

References Protection function to be replaced Protection scheme Advantages Disadvantages
[69] Differential protection Uses the Pearson correlation method This method is dependable Complex calculation
[70] Distance protection Uses signals in different frequency spectral This method is dependable and secure. Avoids phasor signals Complex calculation and requires a good method to filter the signal
[71] All function Uses signal processing (WT, PCA, TEO, JM, MM, etc.) This method is dependable and secure Often present complex calculation and requires finding the appropriate mother function
[48] Distance protection ANN This method is dependable and secure. Fast and adaptive in nature Require a lot of information for training
[72] Detect and classify faults Neuro-fuzzy This method is dependable and secure. Good performance to identify faults Complex calculation and require a lot of information for training
[73] Distance protection SVM This method is dependable and secure Only applies under certain conditions
[74] Directional element DT-SVM This method is dependable and secure. Good performance to identify directionality Complex calculation