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Table 1 Operating characteristics of IBRs

From: Transmission line protection challenges influenced by inverter-based resources: a review

IBR components Operation steady-state Fault response
Control system Limited current amplitude
Controlled phase-angle current
Controlled fault current duration (response time)
Limited fault current amplitude
Affected by FRT configuration type (GC)
Controlled phase-angle current
Structure A small amount of negative-sequence
No presence of zero-sequence quantities
Fast transient depends on the capacitive filter (LCL) and Cd
Unstable internal impedance
A small amount of negative-sequence
No presence of zero-sequence quantities