Skip to main content

Table 7 Nominal parameters of the system: system frequency f = 60 Hz, Tgi = 0.08 s, Tti = 0.3 s; Tri = 10 s; Kri = 0.5; Kpi = 120 Hz/pu MW; Tpi = 20 s; T12 = 0.086 pu MW/rad; Hi = s; Di = 8.33X10–3 pu MW/Hz; βi = 0.425 pu MW/Hz; Ri = 2.4 pu Hz/MW; loading = 50%; TSSSC = 0.03 s; KSSSC = 0.1802; Kφ = 1.5 rad/Hz; TPS = 0.1 s; TTCSC = 0.015 s; TIPFC = 0.01 s

From: Grasshopper optimization algorithm optimized multistage controller for automatic generation control of a power system with FACTS devices

i Control area number i (1,2,3)
m, n Grasshopper index
Xm location of mth Grasshopper
Sm correlation
Gm gravitational strength on the mth Grasshopper
Am wind abeyance
C Coefficient of the comfort zone
TSSC SSSC time constant
TTCPS TCPS time constant
Kφ TCPS gain
∆φ phase-shifting angle
TTCSC TCSC time constant
TIPFC IPFC time constant
Hi inertia constant of control area i (s)
∆PLi load increments in (p.u)
∆Pgi generation increments in (p.u)
Di ∆PLi /∆fi (pu/Hz)
T12, T23, T13 synchronizing factors
Ri speed regulation factor of control area i (Hz/pu MW)
Tgi the time constant of reheat governor control area i (s)
Kri reheat coefficient of control area i
Tri Reheat time constant of area i (s)
Tti the turbine time constant of control area i (s)
Bi frequency bias constant of area i
Tpi 2Hi/ f * Di
Kpi 1/Di (Hz/pu)
KPi proportional gain of PI, PID, PIDF, and PIDF plus (1 + PI) controller in the control area i
KIi integral gain of integral, PI, PID, PIDF and PIDF plus (1 + PI) controller in control area i
KDi derivative gain of PID, PIDF, and PIDF plus (1 + PI) controller in the control area i
KPPi the proportional gain of (1 + PI) controller in the control area i
Ni filter coefficient of PIDF & PDF controller in control area i
D(s) estimated derivative term = s/ 1 + Ns
βi control area frequency response characteristics of area I (AFRC) = Di + 1/Ri
fi frequency incremental of control area i (Hz)
∆Pgi Generation increments of control area i (p.u)
∆Ptie i-j tie-line power increment among control area i and area j (p.u)
T simulation time (s)