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Table 5 Peak deviation and settling time for GOA optimized PDF plus (1 + PI) controller with IPFC and different SLP values

From: Grasshopper optimization algorithm optimized multistage controller for automatic generation control of a power system with FACTS devices

Condition Peak Overshoot (+) Peak Undershoot (−) Settling Time in seconds
f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu) f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu) f1 (Hz) f2 (Hz) Ptie1–2(pu)
Without IPFC 0.011598 0.007540 0.001431 0.032582 0.026905 0.016016 38.73 3914 49.41
IPFC in 1–2 0.001170 0.001118 0.000647 0.019762 0.019764 0.011305 35.96 38.43 39.83
IPFC in 1–2-3 0.000740 0.000735 0.000551 0.007415 0.007567 0.006845 34.22 37.07 38.12
SLP 3% 0.002273 0.002125 0.002308 0.019367 0.019417 0.019322 58.15 56.92 58.12
SLP 5% 0.002358 0.002244 0.002399 0.029284 0.029264 0.029257 76.19 77.43 78.45