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Table 3 Peak deviation and settling time for effectiveness measurement of GOA with PDF plus (1 + PI) controller

From: Grasshopper optimization algorithm optimized multistage controller for automatic generation control of a power system with FACTS devices

Element Peak Overshoot (+) Peak Undershoot (−) Settling Time in seconds
GA PSO GOA GA PSO GOA GA PSO GOA
f1 (Hz) 0.000983 0.000949 0.000740 0.008227 0.007562 0.007415 46.13 42.89 34.22
f2 (Hz) 0.001013 0.000948 0.000735 0.008228 0.007643 0.007567 47.16 43.91 37.07
f3 (Hz) 0.000974 0.000912 0.000551 0.008225 0.007998 0.006845 46.37 42.61 38.12
Ptie1–2(pu) 0.001832 0.001698 0.001674 0.011228 0.010935 0.008423 44.67 43.57 42.68
Ptie2–3(pu) 0.001536 0.001572 0.001458 0.011231 0.010564 0.010127 42.16 40.28 37.84
Ptie3–1(pu) 0.001547 0.001422 0.001467 0.011159 0.011032 0.010113 46.02 41.53 40.96