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Table 2 Peak deviation and settling time for effectiveness measurement of PDF plus (1 + PI) controller

From: Grasshopper optimization algorithm optimized multistage controller for automatic generation control of a power system with FACTS devices

Element Peak Overshoot (+) Peak Undershoot (−) Settling Time in seconds
PI PID PIDF PDF + (1 + PI) PI PID PIDF PDF + (1 + PI) PI PID PIDF PDF + (1 + PI)
f1 (Hz) 0.001205 0.001184 0.000963 0.000740 0.008266 0.007891 0.007613 0.007415 44.65 41.25 38.34 34.22
f2 (Hz) 0.001269 0.001163 0.000976 0.000735 0.008362 0.008184 0.007771 0.007567 43.71 41.95 39.39 37.07
f3 (Hz) 0.001139 0.001131 0.000977 0.000551 0.008305 0.008102 0.007551 0.006845 44.50 42.64 40.68 38.12
Ptie1–2(pu) 0.001873 0.001718 0.001434 0.001674 0.011169 0.010894 0.009867 0.008423 52.58 45.31 43.22 42.68
Ptie2–3(pu) 0.001875 0.001693 0.001548 0.001458 0.011421 0.011228 0.011205 0.010127 54.88 42.39 41.17 37.84
Ptie3–1(pu) 0.001751 0.001697 0.001676 0.001467 0.011308 0.011235 0.011218 0.010113 49.81 45.45 42.22 40.96