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Table 5 Optimal controller gains in test system-3 with and without considering CTDs

From: Impact of communication time delays on combined LFC and AVR of a multi-area hybrid system with IPFC-RFBs coordinated control strategy

Controller Without Considering CTDs with Considering CTDs
Area-1 Area-2 Area-1 Area-2
Loop LFC Loop AVR Loop LFC Loop AVR Loop LFC Loop AVR Loop LFC Loop AVR
DE: PID KP = 3.0963 KP = 2.1076 KP = 3.4047 KP = 1.9587 KP = 3.4632 KP = 2.0209 KP = 3.7258 KP = 1.7819
KI = 2.9147 KI = 1.6913 KI = 2.6738 KI = 1.6627 KI = 2.7610 KI = 1.6914 KI = 2.3726 KI = 1.6733
KD = 1.2009 KD = 0.9126 KD = 1.9844 KD = 0.9852 KD = 1.6035 KD = 0.7521 KD = 2.0015 KD = 1.1343
AEFA: PID KP = 3.9752 KP = 2.4194 KP = 3.7805 KP = 2.0357 KP = 4.2938 KP = 2.8621 KP = 3.9990 KP = 3.0986
KI = 2.4588 KI = 1.4389 KI = 2.9595 KI = 1.8419 KI = 2.5841 KI = 1.5276 KI = 2.7256 KI = 1.8667
KD = 1.8030 KD = 0.9209 KD = 1.6575 KD = 0.9304 KD = 2.0137 KD = 1.2961 KD = 1.5786 KD = 1.1048
DE-AEFA: PID KP = 4.0786 KP = 2.3922 KP = 3.6959 KP = 2.0572 KP = 4.7219 KP = 2.5713 KP = 4.5923 KP = 2.5312
KI = 2.7907 KI = 1.5666 KI = 3.3108 KI = 2.0963 KI = 3.0172 KI = 1.9218 KI = 3.4598 KI = 2.1006
KD = 2.0413 KD = 1.1921 KD = 2.2699 KD = 1.8385 KD = 2.2819 KD = 1.9054 KD = 2.4885 KD = 2.0862