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Table 4 Numerical results for responses of combined LFC and AVR model with and without considering CTDs

From: Impact of communication time delays on combined LFC and AVR of a multi-area hybrid system with IPFC-RFBs coordinated control strategy

  Optimization Algorithms Parameters ∆f1
10−3
∆f2
10−3
∆Ptie12
10−3
V1 V2 ISE
Without considering CTDs DE TS (Sec) 17.23 14.09 17.11 5.842 5.889 25.725
PU (−ve) 27.47 12.29 13.28 0.857 0.910
PO 9.269 4.847 3.851 1.028 1.034
AEFA TS (Sec) 9.591 9.268 12.80 5.515 5.833 21.478
PU (−ve) 20.55 10.81 8.521 0.976 0.944
PO 1.715 1.335 1.161 1.037 1.033
DE-AEFA TS (Sec) 7.575 7.520 7.847 5.070 4.734 12.416
PU (−ve) 16.70 4.391 7.428 0.870 0.873
PO 1.658 0.1573 1.766 1.181 1.135
With considering CTDs DE TS (Sec) 22.50 17.86 21.56 7.581 10.45 94.784
PU (−ve) 61.09 14.81 34.56 0.771 0.692
PO 23.81 5.041 12.68 1.407 1.386
AEFA TS (Sec) 10.68 13.29 14.26 7.024 6.845 48.272
PU (−ve) 42.43 9.547 20.96 0.578 0.784
PO 10.06 1.933 3.454 1.352 1.472
DE-AEFA TS (Sec) 8.42 10.77 12.65 5.154 5.020 24.921
PU (−ve) 33.39 7.200 15.62 0.711 0.745
PO 9.235 0.722 2.106 1.429 1.428