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Table 4 Numerical results for responses of combined LFC and AVR model with and without considering CTDs

From: Impact of communication time delays on combined LFC and AVR of a multi-area hybrid system with IPFC-RFBs coordinated control strategy

 

Optimization Algorithms

Parameters

∆f1

10−3

∆f2

10−3

∆Ptie12

10−3

V1

V2

ISE

Without considering CTDs

DE

TS (Sec)

17.23

14.09

17.11

5.842

5.889

25.725

PU (−ve)

27.47

12.29

13.28

0.857

0.910

PO

9.269

4.847

3.851

1.028

1.034

AEFA

TS (Sec)

9.591

9.268

12.80

5.515

5.833

21.478

PU (−ve)

20.55

10.81

8.521

0.976

0.944

PO

1.715

1.335

1.161

1.037

1.033

DE-AEFA

TS (Sec)

7.575

7.520

7.847

5.070

4.734

12.416

PU (−ve)

16.70

4.391

7.428

0.870

0.873

PO

1.658

0.1573

1.766

1.181

1.135

With considering CTDs

DE

TS (Sec)

22.50

17.86

21.56

7.581

10.45

94.784

PU (−ve)

61.09

14.81

34.56

0.771

0.692

PO

23.81

5.041

12.68

1.407

1.386

AEFA

TS (Sec)

10.68

13.29

14.26

7.024

6.845

48.272

PU (−ve)

42.43

9.547

20.96

0.578

0.784

PO

10.06

1.933

3.454

1.352

1.472

DE-AEFA

TS (Sec)

8.42

10.77

12.65

5.154

5.020

24.921

PU (−ve)

33.39

7.200

15.62

0.711

0.745

PO

9.235

0.722

2.106

1.429

1.428