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Table 3 Comparison analysis for case study 3

From: Sliding mode controller design for frequency regulation in an interconnected power system

Method Peak Value (× 10− 4) Settling time (Ts) sec ISE IAE (×10− 4) ITAE Percentage Improvement in peak value w.r.t [18]
Proposed1-GWO 0.3 1.12 9.7 × 10− 11 0.13 8.6 × 10− 5 98.0
Proposed2-PSO 0.35 1.20 2.3 × 10–10 0.01 9.72 × 105 97.66
Anwar and Pan [18] 15.0 42.5 9.7 × 10− 6 12.7 0.142