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Table 2 Comparison analysis for case study 2

From: Sliding mode controller design for frequency regulation in an interconnected power system

Method Peak Value (× 10− 4) Settling time (Ts) sec ISE IAE (× 10− 4) ITAE (× 10− 4) Percentage Improvement in peak value w.r.t [4]
Proposed1-GWO 0.19 1.4 3.2 × 10− 11 0.03 0.03 91.44
Proposed2-PSO 0.012 1.6 7.9 × 10–11 0.14 0.83 99.45
Anwar and Pan [18] 1.35 4.9 6.2 × 10−9 1.0 2.0 39.2
Padhan and Majhi [4] 2.22 5.2 2.7 × 10−8 2.1 4.11