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Table 1 Comparison analysis for case study 1

From: Sliding mode controller design for frequency regulation in an interconnected power system

Method Peak Value (× 10− 3) Settling time (Ts) sec. ISE IAE ITAE Percentage Improvement in peak value w.r.t [18].
Proposed1-GWO 1.0 1.12 1.72 × 10− 12 1.3 × 10− 6 5.6 × 10− 4 88.91
Proposed2-PSO 1.37 1.75 3.53 × 10–12 1.87 × 10–6 5.1 × 10–4 84.80
Saxena and Hote [9] 3.39 2.5 1.4 × 10− 5 0.001 0.002 58.40
Anwar and Pan [18] 9.02 2.73 2.6 × 10− 5 0.004 0.006