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Table 6 The relationship between challenges and technological solutions to centralized technologies

From: A critical review of the integration of renewable energy sources with various technologies

  Technologies of Flexibility Technologies of Grid   
Changes to large VRE-generators New or modified conventional, large generators Centralised stocking Centralised response to demand VRE predictive technology Strengthening/expansion of the transmission grid Systems transmission of HVDC Power flow controller Power reaction controller Power providers inertia or short-circuit Central monitoring & control of the feed-in
Limited VRE generator dispatch-ability X X X X X X Balance
Insufficient appropriateness of short-term generation X X X X X X X X X
Inadequate firmness of VRE engines X X X X X X
Insufficient VRE generator forecast X X X X X X
Insufficient adequacy for long term generation X X X X X X
Rising excursions at local voltage X X X X X X X X X X X Quality
Unreliable shutdown at blackout X X X X X X X X X X X
Stepping up harmonic distortions X X X X X X X X X X X
Increasing flicker X X X X X X X X X X X
Increasing interactions between controls X X X X X X Stability
Diminishing reserves of frequency control X X X X X X X
Insufficient synchronization of the voltage trip limits X X X X X X X
Insufficient coordination of frequency travel limits X X X X X
Decreasing the level of inertia X X X X X X X
Diminishing short-circuit power X X X X X X X
Insufficient supply of reactive capacity X X X X X X X X X
Greater transmission distances X X X X X X X X X Flow
Missing capacity on the transmission grid X X X X X X X X X X
Narrow limits of the trip voltage X X X X X X X X
VRE generation lacking visibility X X X X X X X X X X X
VRE generation lacks controllability X X X X X X X X X X X
Increasing currents on short-circuits X X X X X X X X X X
Insufficient nature of the defines X X X X X X X X X
Flow patterns from lower grid rates are highly erratic X X X X   X X X X X
Missing room on the distribution grid X X   X X X
Increasing excursions to the regional voltage X X X X X X X X X