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Table 5 The relationship between challenges and technological solutions to distributed technology

From: A critical review of the integration of renewable energy sources with various technologies

  Technologies of Flexibility Technologies of Grid  
Distributed response to demand Conventional Generators Distributed Storage of Distributed Changes to distributed VRE generators Filters in harmony Limiter systems currently in use State approximate distribution grid solutions Solutions for Voltage management of distribution grids Adapted protective equipment approaches Strengthening/expansion of distribution grid
Limited VRE generator dispatch-ability X X X X X X Balance
Insufficient appropriateness of short-term generation X X X X X X
Inadequate firmness of VRE engines X X X X X X
Insufficient VRE generator forecast X X X X X X X
Insufficient adequacy for long term generation X X X X X X X X
Rising excursions at the local voltage X X X X X X X X X Quality
Unreliable shutdown at blackout X X X X X X X X X
Stepping up harmonic distortions X X X X X X X
Increasing flicker X X X X X X X
Increasing interactions between controls X X X X X X X X X X Stability
Diminishing reserves of frequency control X X X X X X
Insufficient synchronization of the voltage trip limits X X X X X X X X
Insufficient coordination of frequency travel limits X X X X X X
Decreasing level of inertia X X X X X X X X X X
Diminishing short-circuit power X X X X X X X X X X
Insufficient supply of reactive capacity X X X X X X X X
Greater transmission distances X X X X X X X X X X Flow
Missing capacity on the transmission grid X X X X X X X X
Narrow limits of the trip voltage X X X X X X X
VRE generation lacking visibility X X X X X X X
VRE generation lacks controllability X X X X X X X
Increasing currents on short-circuits X X X X X X
Insufficient nature of the defines X X X X X X X
Flow patterns from lower grid rates are highly erratic X X X X
Missing room on the distribution grid X X X X
Increasing excursions to the regional voltage X X