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Table 4 Solution VRE integration technologies

From: A critical review of the integration of renewable energy sources with various technologies

Ref. Example of Solution Solution Example Application of Solution Illustration
[20, 45, 68] Panel photovoltaic farm Changes to Distributed VRE Generators Solar tracking, low tension travel, reactive power supply Changes in primary equipment, controlling or operating distributed VRE generators
[21, 82, 113] Engine reconstruction Conventional generators distributed Self-consumption optimisation, peak shaving, power balancing, maximum load provision Conventional generators with increased ramping performance, start number or partial load operation in commercial and household environments.
[17, 128] Lithium (Li)-Battery with lead-acid Handed out storage Self-consumption optimisation, peak shaving, power balancing, maximum load provision Housing equipment distributed in household, commercial or small industrial environments
[126] Cable, transformer, overhead track, Reinforcement of the distribution grid/expansion Improvement of transmission capacity, optimisation of the active and reactive power flow, improvement of grid reliability Grid reinforcement or extension using conventional equipment in the distribution grid
[7, 59] Direct transfer journey scheme, interlock reclosure Adapted security protection approaches Avoiding relay desensitisation, stopping stumbling Revision of security functions and systems to ensure the identification of faults and to avoid false safety events.
[7, 58, 67] On-load tap changer, static var. compensator, for distribution transformers Solutions for Voltage management of distribution grids Voltage regulation in feeders for distribution grid Equipment that facilitates the control of voltage fluctuations in distribution grid or feeder areas.
[34, 63] Measuring units Phasor (MUP) State approximate distribution grid solutions Real-time monitoring and control of VRE feed-in Technology for calculating and estimating the electrical status of a network region.
[48, 122] High impedance transformer, fuse limiting current Limiter systems currently in use Present defect restriction Devices designed to limit fault currents.
[121] Passive or active filters Filters in peace Reduce harmonic distortions Geräte for filtering harmonic distortions.
[63, 128] Pleasant wind turbine grid Changes to large VRE-generators Wind turbine discharge, low tension flight, synthetic inertia Changes in the primary machinery, regulating or running large VRE generators.
[25, 85] A gas turbine, engine reciprocators New or modified conventional, large generators Equilibrium power, maximum load provision Conventional generators with increased ramping performance, start number or partial load operation in industrial or utility environments
[63] Pumped hydro storage, battery with li-ion or lead-acid, hydrogen storage Storage of Centralized Equilibrium power, maximum load provision Tools located in manufacturing or utility environments
[7, 21] Aluminium smelter check Centralised response to demand Peak rashing, power balance, full load supply Controlled reduction or increase in electrical consumption of electrical appliances by large consumers, mainly in industrial environments
[25, 68] Weather forecasting and probabilistic forecasting VRE predictive technology Predictions for the day ahead, now casting Technology to improve short- and medium-term predictability of VRE production.
[63] Converter based on thruster, Transistor-based Transmission devices with high voltage direct current (HVDC) Improvement of the transmission capacity over long distances, active and reactive power flow management, improvement of grid reliability. Conversion of high voltage alternating current to continuous current and lower voltage direct current transmission systems
[7] Transformer with phase shift, back-to-back HVDC, controllable series compensation Power flow checker Temporary increase or decrease in transmission capacity, and optimisation of active and reactive power flow. Technology for controlling the active power flow through transmission grids
[25] Static var. compensator, static synchronous equalizer Power reaction controller Prevention of delayed voltage recovery caused by the fault, reactive power support for wind farms’ transmission connections. Technology to control the balance of reactive power in transmission grids
[23] Flywheel Power providers inertia or short-circuit Provision of inertia, rise in short-circuit control and provision in reactive power Technologies to provide inertia or short-circuit power to stabilize grid areas under conditions of fault