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Table 3 Simulation results on the IEEE 14 bus system using different algorithms without DG injection

From: Impact of the penetration of distributed generation on optimal reactive power dispatch

Control Variables (p.u.) PSO R-PSO L-PSO PSO-CFA IPSO-SR FOA MFOA JAYA
VG1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
VG2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0863 1.1 1.1 1.0859
VG3 1.0701 1.0696 1.0703 1.0702 1.0578 1.1 1.1 1.0568
VG6 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0605 1.0575 0.9 1.1 1.1
VG8 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0726 0.95 1.1 1.1
T4–7 0.9285 0.9551 1.1 1.1 0.9685 1.1 1.1 0.9492
T4–9 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.935 1.1 1.0766
T5–6 1.1 1.0179 1.0047 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0031
Qsc9 0.2332 0.3 0.2643 0.015 0.2134 0.000328 0.0443 0.3
Qsc14 0.0555 0.0604 0.0 0.0641 0.0634 0.000296 0.0443 0.0594
Total Ploss (MW) 12.4268 12.3585 12.4041 12.416 12.2957 12.5992 12.7531 12.2270
DE [32] ABC [32] ACOR [32] TLA [32] DE [32] MTLA [32] MTLA-DDE [32] LCA [32] CSS [32]
13.1053 12.9333 13.1226 12.9229 13.1053 12.9106 12.8978 12.9891 12.9748
BRCFF [32] BB–BC [32] PBIL [32] DDE [32] TLBO [33] BBPSO [33] BBDE [33] GBTLBO [33] MGBTLBO [33]
12.9264 13.0039 13.0008 12.9286 12.9878 12.9919 12.9973 12.4152 12.3105
PSO [17] PSO-TVAC [17] WOA [17] MDE [18] SARGA [18] RTS [18] EP [18] BSO 1 [18] BSO 2 [18]
12.381 12.279 12.255 13.0532 13.21643 13.236 13.3462 12.4633 12.4672
BSO 3 [18] BSO 4 [18] BSO 4 [18]       
12.4651 12.4588 12.4699