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Table 7 Performance comparison of controllers corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.1

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

Controller Steady state error (p.u.) Variance Computational time (s)
Integral 0.021 1.32 × 10−4 2.5230
LQR ± 0.04 0.0126 13.2677
Proposed −7 × 10− 3 1.57 × 10−6 1.1353