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Table 5 Mean and variance of state variables estimated corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.1

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

K State variable Mean Variance
[2.9943, 0.9940, −80.6344] ΔPv 0.1284 0.5515
ΔPm 0.1282 0.5677
Δf −0.0080 1.023 × 10−6
K1 2.9935 6.9818 × 10−5
K2 0.9941 2.6252 × 10− 5
K3 −80.3066 0.0602