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Table 4 Performance comparison of controllers corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.01

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

Controller Steady state error (p.u.) Variance Computational time (s)
Integral −0.03 1.12 × 10− 6 3.31081
LQR −2 × 10− 4 2.19 × 10− 8 14.0762
Proposed −5 × 10− 3 1.57 × 10− 6 1.3579