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Table 3 Mean and the variance of state variables estimated corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.01

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

K State variable Mean Variance
[3.0007, 0.9998, −80.0015] ΔPv 0.0635 3.8767 × 10− 4
ΔPm 0.0636 3.9950 × 10− 4
Δf − 0.0040 1.5726 × 10− 6
K1 3.0004 1.1718 × 10− 7
K2 0.9999 5.4111 × 10− 9
K3 − 80.0002 5.2235 × 10− 7