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Table 2 Performance comparison of controllers corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.005

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

Controller Steady state error (p.u.) Variance Computational
time (s)
Integral −0.007 3.49 × 10−7 2.56377
LQR −3 × 10− 4 2.16 × 10− 8 14.9660
Proposed − 4 × 10− 3 1.67 × 10− 6 1.70527