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Table 1 Mean and variance of state variables estimated corresponding to a measurement noise variance of 0.005

From: Optimal load frequency control through combined state and control gain estimation for noisy measurements

K State variable Mean Variance
[2.999, 1.000, − 80.002] ΔPv 0.0634 4.0817 × 10−4
ΔPm 0.0635 4.2357 × 10−4
Δf −0.0040 1.6709 × 10− 6
K1 2.9999 1.3138 × 10− 9
K2 1.0000 7.0250 × 10− 11
K3 − 80.0002 9.3576 × 10− 9