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Table 1 Typical VSC-HVDC transmission projects

From: Review of protection and fault handling for a flexible DC grid

Project Name Country Time PN/MW U/kV Transmission distance/km
Gotland Sweden 1999 54 ±80 70
Eagle Pass B2B U.S.A-Mexico 2000 36 ±15.9 0
Cross Sound Cable U.S.A 2002 330 ±150 40
Estlink Estonia-Finland 2006 350 ±150 105
Valhall offshore Norway 2009 78 ±150 292
Trans Bay Cable U.S.A 2010 400 ±200 88
Shanghai Nanhui China 2011 18 ±30 8.6
Nan’ao China 2013 200 ±160 40.7
Zhoushan China 2014 1000 ±200 140.1
Xiamen China 2015 1000 ±320 10.7
DolWin1 Germany 2015 800 ±320 165
Luxi China 2016 3000 ±500 0
Yu’e China 2019 5000 ±420 0
Zhangbei China 2020 9000 ±500 666
Wudongde China 2020 10,200 ±800 1489
Baihetan China 2022 16,000 ±800 2172