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Table 3 Dynamic response of various controllers for scenario 2 instead of optimized PID parameters with different approaches

From: Coordinated control of conventional power sources and PHEVs using jaya algorithm optimized PID controller for frequency control of a renewable penetrated power system

MethodsPerformance indices
Area 1Area 2Tie-line power deviation
Peak Undershoot (Hz)Settling Time (sec)Peak Undershoot (Hz)Settling Time (sec)Peak Undershoot (MW)Settling Time (sec)
GA-PID [19]49.9414449.895525545
PSO-PID [20]49.9692449.98721.5919.5
GWO-PID [22]49.9762149.98918717