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Table 2 FFT Frequency Coefficients under Various Operating conditions in IEEE-39 Bus System Calculated from PMU at Bus-1

From: Remote monitoring system for real time detection and classification of transmission line faults in a power grid using PMU measurements

Fault Location (Branch) Fault Type Fault Condition (FR, FIA) σ α β γ δ ΓR, ΓY, ΓB ANN Classifier ANFIS Classifier SVM Classifier
3–18, 50 km from bus-3 AG 0 Ω, 0° 0.599 0.042 0.140 0.018 0.009 0.55, 1, 0.99 CA AG AG
4–15, 20 km from bus-4 BG 10 Ω, 45° 0.597 0.039 0.136 0.016 0.008 0.99, 0.76, 1 AB BG BG
22–23, 50 km from bus-22 CG 100 Ω, 120° 0.588 0.032 0.132 0.012 0.007 1, 0.99, 0.84 BC CG CG
9–8, 70 km from bus-9 AB 0 Ω, 0° 1.253 0.294 0.275 0.161 0.062 0.66, 0.67, 1 AB AB AB
4–5, 20 km from bus-4 BC 10 Ω, 45° 1.250 0.291 0.271 0.157 0.058 1, 0.74, 0.74 BC BC BC
19–33, 10 km from bus-19 CA 100 Ω, 120° 1.244 0.285 0.267 0.148 0.052 0.86, 1, 0.87 CA CA CA
2–3, 60 km from bus-2 ABG 0 Ω, 0° 1.385 0.270 0.230 0.132 0.047 0.59, 0.60, 1 AB AG ABG
17–27, 40 km from bus-17 BCG 10 Ω, 45° 1.382 0.266 0.227 0.129 0.046 1, 0.77, 0.77 BC BG BCG
23–24, 70 km from bus-23 CAG 100 Ω, 120° 1.378 0.260 0.220 0.121 0.038 0.87, 1, 0.87 AC CG CAG
2–30, 20 km from bus-2 ABC 0 Ω, 0° 1.498 0.219 0.055 0.027 0.019 1, 1, 1 ABC ABC ABC
5–6, 50 km from bus-5 ABC 10 Ω, 45° 1.495 0.215 0.054 0.025 0.018 1, 1, 1 ABC ABC ABC
21–22, 60 km from bus-21 ABC 100 Ω, 120° 1.489 0.210 0.051 0.021 0.016 1, 1, 1 ABC ABC ABC
No Fault 0.533 0 0 0 0 1, 1, 1 No Fault No Fault No Fault