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Table 9 The detailed parametric values of the network (Fig. 2)

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

Sl. No. Element Variables supporting the elements Description
1 Utility   3-phase, 60 Hz, 154 kV
2 Distributed Generators DG 1, DG 2, DG 3 and DG 4 60 Hz, 575 V, 9 MW, DFIG based wind farms
3 Transformers Utility: T r1 22.9 kV/154 kV, 60 Hz, 47 MVA,
   Distribution: T r2 , T r3 , T r4 and T r5 575 V/ 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 10.5 MVA
4 Distributed Lines DL AB (20 km), DL AE (16 km), DL BE (12 km), DL BC (02 km), DL CD (04 km). Pi section models, positive- and zero- sequence resistances (r1, r0)Ω/km = (0.07375, 0.4054) Ω/km, positive- and zero- sequence inductances (l1, l0)H/km = (0 3.4358 × 10−3, 8.9524 × 10−3) H/km, positive- and zero- sequence capacitances (c1, c0)F/km = (0.0075 × 10−6, 0.0044 × 10−6) F/km.
5 Loads L 1 (constant PQ loads) L 2 (constant PQ loads) L 3 (constant PQ loads) L 4 (constant PQ loads) L 5 (constant PQ loads) 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 12.0 MW, 0.50 MVAR 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 10.5 MW, 0.25 MVAR 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 11.0 MW, 0.45 MVAR 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 12.0 MW, 0.15 MVAR 22.9 kV, 60 Hz, 10.5 MW, 0.05 MVAR
6 Battery Banks   1-MWh BESS is considered by integrating five
200-kWh LiFePO4 lithium–ion BESSs in parallel.