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Table 8 Comparison for the estimated fault distance (km) and percentage error in fault location (%) for a single line to ground fault (a-g), with a fault resistance (R f ) = 10 Ω at different fault locations (2 km to 18 km i.e., FDR varied from 0.1 to 0.9 p.u., respectively), on the distribution line DL AB in the micro grid operating under grid connected mode, subjected to various levels of DG penetrations

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

l. No. Fault Type Fault Resistance(in Ω) Fault Distance Ratio (0–1) [×100 in %] Faulted
Distribution Line
Total line Distance (in km) Actual Fault Distance (km) DG status Conventional DFT Technique Proposed TFR technique
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error (in %)
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error (in %)
1 a-g 10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 on 2.6584 3.2919 2.6063 3.0313
2 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.9467 4.7335 4.8906 4.4529
3 0.3 LAB 20 6 7.3169 6.5844 7.2603 6.3014
4 0.4 LAB 20 8 9.8024 9.0119 9.7498 8.7491
5 0.5 LAB 20 10 12.4584 12.2922 12.4164 12.0822
6 0.6 LAB 20 12 15.3774 16.8869 15.3552 16.7761
7 0.7 LAB 20 14 18.7261 23.6306 18.7162 23.5808
8 0.8 LAB 20 16 22.7886 33.9430 22.7344 33.6720
9 0.9 LAB 20 18 27.8364 49.1818 27.7534 48.7672
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 on
DG 4 off
2.2228 1.1139 2.1697 0.8484
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.3147 1.5736 4.2531 1.2655
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.4357 2.1787 6.3664 1.8321
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.5999 2.9993 8.5240 2.6198
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.8311 4.1557 10.7506 3.7530
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 13.1717 5.8587 13.0889 5.4445
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 15.6986 8.4931 15.6156 8.0778
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 18.5583 12.7917 18.4735 12.3675
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 22.0391 20.1955 21.9325 19.6624
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 on
DG 3 4 off
2.2391 1.1954 2.1821 0.9105
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.3287 1.6434 4.2578 1.2891
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.4452 2.2262 6.3608 1.8039
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.5982 2.9912 8.4996 2.4982
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.8020 4.0101 10.6882 3.4411
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 13.0794 5.3970 12.9491 4.7454
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 15.4663 7.3316 15.3185 6.5924
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 18.0207 10.1035 17.8542 9.2712
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 20.8351 14.1755 20.6508 13.2541
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 on
DG 2 3 4 off
1.8329 0.8355 1.9015 0.4927
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 3.7707 1.1467 3.8521 0.7395
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 5.7063 1.4684 5.8006 0.9971
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 7.6361 1.8194 7.7438 1.2809
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 9.5573 2.2137 9.6798 1.6011
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 11.4676 2.6620 11.6070 1.9652
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 13.3650 3.1751 13.5239 2.3803
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 15.2473 3.7635 15.4295 2.8525
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 17.1122 4.4392 17.3225 3.3877
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 off 2.0501 0.2504 1.9889 0.0553
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0535 0.2677 3.9780 0.1099
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0576 0.2880 5.9673 0.1637
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0622 0.3110 7.9565 0.2174
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0674 0.3371 9.9460 0.2701
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.0733 0.3664 11.9356 0.3219
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.0798 0.3990 13.9256 0.3722
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.0871 0.4356 15.9157 0.4214
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.0953 0.4764 17.9063 0.4686