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Table 7 Comparison for the estimated fault distance (km) and percentage error in fault location (%) for a single line to ground fault (a-g), with a fault resistance (R f ) = 1Ω at different fault locations (2 km to 18 km i.e., FDR varied from 0.1 to 0.9 p.u., respectively), on the distribution line DL AB in the micro grid operating under grid connected mode, subjected to various levels of DG penetrations

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

Sl. No. Fault Type Fault Resistance (in Ω) Fault Distance Ratio (0–1)
[×100 in %]
Faulted
Distribution Line
Total line Distance (in km) Actual Fault Distance (km) DG status Conventional DFT Technique Proposed TFR technique
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error (in %)
Estimate (km) Percentage
Error (in %)
1 a-g 1 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 on 2.1541 0.7768 2.0984 0.4912
2 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.2222 1.1121 4.1536 0.7726
3 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.3076 1.5457 6.2266 1.1372
4 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.4156 2.0833 8.3233 1.6240
5 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.5556 2.7839 10.4533 2.2747
6 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.7426 3.7161 12.6322 3.1629
7 0.7 LAB 20 14 15.0035 5.0289 14.8872 4.4484
8 0.8 LAB 20 16 17.3870 6.9461 17.2666 6.3363
9 0.9 LAB 20 18 19.9789 9.8962 19.8504 9.2559
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 on
DG 4 off
2.0704 0.3519 2.0154 0.0771
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0932 0.4661 4.0235 0.1175
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.1206 0.6030 6.0359 0.1795
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.1555 0.7777 8.0563 0.2813
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.2029 1.0146 10.0896 0.4479
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.2711 1.3557 12.1445 0.7223
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.3753 1.8764 14.2358 1.1792
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.5453 2.7266 16.3933 1.9666
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.8441 4.2204 18.6763 3.3816
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 on
DG 3 4 off
2.0546 0.2732 2.0218 0.1091
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0754 0.3769 4.0360 0.1800
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.1019 0.5096 6.0565 0.2826
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.1353 0.6766 8.0842 0.4210
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.1775 0.8876 10.1775 0.8876
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.2326 1.1631 12.1705 0.8527
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.3069 1.5347 14.2395 1.1973
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.4116 2.0580 16.3388 1.6940
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.5654 2.8269 18.4883 2.4416
10 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 on
DG 2 3 4 off
1.9689 0.1557 1.9951 0.0244
11 0.2 LAB 20 4 3.9648 0.1759 3.9921 0.0396
12 0.3 LAB 20 6 5.9595 0.2026 5.9871 0.0645
13 0.4 LAB 20 8 7.9505 0.2476 7.9781 0.1094
14 0.5 LAB 20 10 9.9364 0.3179 9.9641 0.1793
15 0.6 LAB 20 12 11.9163 0.4184 11.9443 0.2787
16 0.7 LAB 20 14 13.8891 0.5544 13.9177 0.4116
17 0.8 LAB 20 16 15.8536 0.7321 15.8836 0.5820
18 0.9 LAB 20 18 17.8085 0.9573 17.8410 0.7948
19 0.1 LAB 20 2 DG 1 2 3 4 off 2.0448 0.2238 1.9892 0.0542
20 0.2 LAB 20 4 4.0488 0.2441 3.9784 0.1079
21 0.3 LAB 20 6 6.0534 0.2671 5.9677 0.1613
22 0.4 LAB 20 8 8.0586 0.2929 7.9574 0.2132
23 0.5 LAB 20 10 10.0643 0.3213 9.9473 0.2635
24 0.6 LAB 20 12 12.0706 0.3529 11.9375 0.3123
25 0.7 LAB 20 14 14.0775 0.3875 13.9282 0.3591
26 0.8 LAB 20 16 16.0852 0.4259 15.9191 0.4044
27 0.9 LAB 20 18 18.0937 0.4687 17.9105 0.4474