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Table 4 Effect of variation of penetration level of the DG’s on the magnitude of fault current (differential and average) at distribution Line DL AB for a triple line to ground fault (abc-g) fault, with fault distance ratio (FDR) = 0.6 and fault resistance (Rf) = 20 Ω, respectively, where the microgrid is operated in islanded mode

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

DG Status Phase max (I Differential)
(in A)
max (I Average)
(in A)
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
All DGs ON a 0.8399 1716.7085 0.6075 457.5215
b 0.8400 805.2776 0.6075 457.5215
c 0.8401 2033.4764 0.6076 457.5215
DG1 Off a 0.7074 1443.1043 70.2482 492.0391
b 0.7073 1289.4827 70.2729 492.0391
c 0.7074 619.6908 70.2943 492.0391
DG1and
DG2 Off
a 0.4704 583.9226 46.2576 202.3372
b 0.4703 661.2137 46.2112 202.3372
c 0.4699 801.3551 46.2462 202.3372
DG1
DG2 and
DG3 Off
a 0.2334 215.5093 22.6099 76.1430
b 0.2334 315.1619 22.6216 76.1430
c 0.2334 326.8790 22.6268 76.1430
All DGs OFF a 0.0002 0.2610 0.0094 0.0779
b 0.0002 0.2587 0.0094 0.0779
c 0.0002 0.2800 0.0094 0.0779