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Table 3 Effect of variation of penetration level of the DG’s on the magnitude of fault current (differential and average) at distribution Line DL AB for a single line to ground fault (a-g) fault on at fault distance ratio (FDR) = 0.4 and fault resistance (Rf) = 5 Ω, respectively, where the microgrid is operated in islanded mode

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

DG Status Phase max (I Differential)
(in A)
max (I Average)
(in A)
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
All DGs ON a 0.8399 716.5758 0.6071 126.0080
b 0.8400 0.8638 0.6071 126.0080
c 0.8401 1.2697 0.6072 126.0080
DG1 Off a 0.7071 640.5418 70.2472 192.7522
b 0.7069 0.7275 70.2717 192.7522
c 0.7070 0.7314 70.2931 192.7522
DG1and
DG2 Off
a 0.4701 304.9124 46.2568 95.4453
b 0.4700 0.4823 46.2104 95.4453
c 0.4697 0.7155 46.2455 95.4453
DG1
DG2 and
DG3 Off
a 0.2332 121.2291 22.6096 39.5804
b 0.2333 0.2484 22.6212 39.5804
c 0.2333 0.3317 22.6264 39.5804
All DGs OFF a 0.0002 0.1536 0.0094 0.0363
b 0.0002 0.0002 0.0094 0.0363
c 0.0002 0.0003 0.0094 0.0363