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Table 1 Effect of variation of penetration level of the DG’s on the magnitude of fault current (differential and average) at distribution Line DL AB for a single line to ground fault (a-g) fault on at fault distance ratio (FDR) = 0.4 and fault resistance (R f ) = 5 Ω, respectively, where the microgrid is operated in grid connected mode

From: A fast time-frequency response based differential spectral energy protection of AC microgrids including fault location

DG Status Phase max (I Differential)
(in A)
max (I Average)
(in A)
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
Half cycle
Before Fault
Half cycle
After Fault
All DGs ON a 0.7887 1243.2311 188.4456 193.2588
b 0.9299 0.9236 107.5869 193.2588
c 1.0485 1.2036 136.7399 193.2588
DG1 Off a 0.8198 987.8662 166.0084 182.2979
b 0.7250 0.71503 126.1319 182.2979
c 0.6317 0.6326 254.0888 182.2979
DG1and
DG2 Off
a 0.7966 868.9202 235.6965 260.5674
b 0.7969 0.8156 235.3598 260.5674
c 0.7963 0.8083 235.4753 260.5674
DG1
DG2 and
DG3 Off
a 0.6339 676.7521 287.6676 318.0452
b 0.6340 0.6613 287.4720 318.0452
c 0.6343 0.6397 287.2737 318.0452
All DGs OFF a 0.4761 541.5058 320.6080 350.0915
b 0.4764 0.4947 320.8868 350.0915
c 0.4761 0.4719 320.8431 350.0915