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Table 3 Results of case studies conducted on IEEE-14 bus system under various transmission line faults

From: An adaptive supervised wide-area backup protection scheme for transmission lines protection

Fault condition Bus number where MPMU is installed Connected branches with MPMU installed bus Measurements of phasor currents from MPMU connected branch Is fault detected?
((|IR2|& |IR3|) or (|IY2|& |IY3|) or (|IB2|& |IB3|)) > 0
(Y/N)
|IEHC| Parent bus,
Faulty branch between two buses
Relays to be supervised Fault type classified
|IR1|, |IR2|, |IR3| |IY1|, |IY2|, |IY3| |IB1|, |IB2|, |IB3|
LG fault with FR of 70Ω & FIA of 1440 at 200 km in branch 13–12 from BUS-13 2 2-5 1.413, 0, 0 1.66, 0, 0 1.27,0.52, 0.13 Y 0.558 BUS-6,
Branch 13-12
R13–12 & R12–13 BG
4 4-5 1.279, 0, 0 1.34, 0, 0 1.12,0.57, 0.26 0.631
6 6-13 0.48, 0, 0 0.41, 0, 0 1.56,0.55, 0.16 0.573
6-12 0.66, 0, 0 0.136, 0, 0 1.25, 0.67, 0.13 0.74
8 8-9 0.38, 0, 0 0.29, 0, 0 0.34, 0.026, 0.02 0.043
9 9-14 0.67, 0, 0 0.59, 0, 0 1.98,0.6, 0.28 0.67
11 11-6 0.66, 0, 0 0.84, 0, 0 0.57, 0.083, 0.19 0.22
13 13-12 0.15, 0, 0 2.28, 0, 0 0.2, 1.092, 0.36 1.183
L-L fault with FR of 50Ω & FIA of 900 at 0 km in branch 7-8 from BUS-7 2 2-4 0.518, 0, 0 0.42, 0.05, 0.01 0.29, 0.07, 0.04 Y 0.1 BUS-8,
Branch 8-7
R8–7 & R7–8 YB
4 4-7 2.73, 0, 0 3.98, 1.24, 0.12 3.18, 1.72, 0.63 2.22
5 5-4 1.41, 0, 0 1.12, 0.561, 0.05 1.32, 0.806, 0.19 1.014
6 6-5 0.73, 0, 0 0.59, 0.112, 0.07 1.23, 0.835, 0.14 1.016
8 8-7 3.57, 0, 0 2.54, 1.64, 0.85 2.48, 1.7, 0.88 2.35
9 9-7 0.23, 0, 0 1.19, 0.87, 0.22 1.59, 0.97, 0.75 1.52
11 11-9 0.64, 0, 0 0.77, 0.14, 0.01 0.63, 0.287, 0.05 0.327
13 13-14 0.62, 0, 0 0.39, 0.301, 0.09 0.472,0.296, 0.28 0.517
L-L-G fault with FR of 15Ω & FIA of 720 at 45 km in branch 1–2 from BUS-2 2 2-1 0.32, 0, 0 8.25, 3.87, 0.98 9.65, 6.75, 2.09 Y 8.11 BUS-2,
Branch 2-1
R2–1 & R1–2 YBG
4 4-5 1.19, 0, 0 1.08, 0.576,0.222 2.87,1.041, 0.270 1.3
5 5-1 1.74, 0, 0 5.27, 1.7, 0.2 4.7, 2.8, 0.6 3.3
6 6-5 0.128, 0, 0 0.11, 0, 0.01 1.65, 0.1, 0.2 0.3
8 8-7 0.36, 0, 0 0.33, 0.022,0.009 0.28, 0.066, 0.02 0.075
9 9-4 1.46, 0, 0 1.42, 0.28, 0.23 1.07, 0.543, 0.32 0.739
11 11-6 0.59, 0, 0 0.55, 0.03, 0.08 0.54, 0.07, 0.16 0.21
13 13-6 0.29, 0, 0 0.56, 0.18, 0.04 0.32, 0.11, 0.07 0.37
L-L-L Fault with FR of 60Ω & FIA of 00 at 65 km in branch 9–10 from BUS-9 2 2-5 1.59,0.245,0.191 1.6, 0.11, 0.049 1.6, 0.258, 0.223 Y 0.476 BUS-9,
Branch 9-1
R9–10 & R10–9 RYB
4 4-9 2.87, 1.532, 0.31 2.79, 0.842, 0.05 1.86, 0.269, 0.34 1.828
5 5-6 3.04, 1.057, 0.279 3, 0.547,0.095 3, 1.073, 0.34 1.664
6 6-11 3.93, 1.532, 0.31 1.73, 0.842, 0.05 2.97 1.551, 0.34 2.382
8 8-7 0.29, 0.054, 0.03 0.32, 0.037,0.005 0.99,0.054,0.034 0.097
9 9-10 3.49, 1.799, 0.199 3.37, 0.981, 0.19 3.57, 1.807, 0.2 2.746
11 11-10 2.64, 1.647, 0.155 1.53, 0.92, 0.013 2.89 1.709, 0.148 2.554
13 13-14 2.16, 1.065, 0.584 2.04, 0.599,0.017 2.19,1.143, 0.686 1.901
No Fault Condition 2 2-1 0.28, 0, 0 0.279, 0, 0 0.272, 0, 0 N --- --- --- ---
4 4.5 1.15, 0, 0 1.149, 0, 0 1.151, 0, 0
5 5-6 2.01, 0, 0 2.014, 0, 0 2.02, 0, 0
6 6-12 0.57, 0, 0 0.56, 0, 0 0.567, 0, 0
8 8-7 0.35, 0, 0 0.351, 0, 0 0.351, 0, 0
9 9-10 0.129, 0, 0 0.129, 0, 0 0.129, 0, 0
11 11-6 0.585, 0, 0 0.58, 0, 0 0.537, 0, 0
13 13-14 0.196, 0, 0 0.199, 0, 0 0.195, 0, 0