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Table 2 Results of case studies, power system contingencies without and with fault conditions, conducted on WSCC-9 bus system

From: An adaptive supervised wide-area backup protection scheme for transmission lines protection

Power System Condition Bus number where MPMU is installed Connected branches with MPMU installed bus Measurements of phasor currents from MPMU connected branch Is fault detected?
((|IR2|& |IR3|) or (|IY2|& |IY3|) or (|IB2|& |IB3|)) > 0
(Y/N)
|IEHC| Is other than fault detected?
(|IR1| or |IY1| or |IB1|) > |Ir| (Y/N)
Parent bus,
Faulty branch between two buses
Relays to be supervised Fault type Classified
|IR1|, |IR2|, |IR3| |IY1|, |IY2|, |IY3| |IB1|, |IB2|, |IB3|
Power Swing without fault 4 4-5 1.614, 0,0 1.545, 0, 0 1.512, 0,0 N --- Y ---,
Branch 9-6
R96 & R69 ---
4-6 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 0
7 7-5 0.506, 0, 0 0.47, 0, 0 0.331, 0, 0
7-8 2.044, 0, 0 2.097, 0, 0 2.145, 0, 0
9 9-8 0.482, 0, 0 0.361, 0, 0 0.409, 0, 0
9-6 3.525, 0, 0 3.395, 0, 0 3.206, 0, 0
Power Swing with LLL fault with FR = 100 Ω, FIA = 360 in branch 7–5 at 20 km from BUS-7 4 4-5 2.492, 0.312, 0.115 2.274, 0.422, 0.147 2.204, 0.303, 0.216 Y 0.669 --- BUS-7,
Branch 7-5
R75 & R57 RYB
4-6 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 0 0
7 7-5 7.149, 0.352, 0.411 6.171, 1.086, 0.759 5.912, 1.296, 0.949 2.151
7-8 1.191, 0.38, 0.01 1.61, 0.424, 0.144 1.555, 0.214, 0.104 0.634
9 9-8 0.264, 0.06, 0.019 0.203, 0.074, 0.054 0.251, 0.075, 0.055 0.145
9-6 2.431, 0.138, 0.151 2.22, 0.313, 0.112 2.02, 0.419, 0.291 0.642
Load encroachment without fault 4 4-5 0.943, 0, 0 0.92, 0, 0 0.969, 0, 0 N --- Y ---,
Branch 7-8
R78 & R87 ---
4-6 0.389, 0, 0 0.713, 0, 0 0.516, 0, 0
7 7-5 2.055, 0, 0 1.949, 0, 0 2.029, 0, 0
7-8 5.335, 0, 0 5.804, 0, 0 5.346, 0, 0
9 9-8 2.85, 0,0 2.886, 0, 0 2.84, 0, 0
9-6 1.876, 0, 0 1.926, 0, 0 1.868, 0, 0
Load encroachment with LLL fault with FR = 50 Ω, FIA = 00 at 15 km from BUS-7 4 4-5 2.769, 0.354, 0.304 2.718, 0.112, 0.068 2.264, 0.459, 0.346 Y 0.752 --- BUS-7,
Branch 7-8
R78 & R87 RYB
4-6 3.724, 0.414, 0.346 3.558, 0.16, 0.08 3.102, 0.571, 0.409 0.903
7 7-5 0.776, 0.262, 0.231 1.222, 0.225, 0.186 1.194, 0.482, 0.406 0.777
7-8 9.745, 0.949, 0.816 9.875, 0.407, 0.322 8.391, 1.359, 1.144 2.234
9 9-8 6.026, 0.859, 0.17 7.153, 0.369, 0.19 6.512, 0.793, 0.228 1.273
9-6 1.365, 0.125, 0.132 2.0, 0.089, 0.062 1.82, 0.195, 0.159 0.329
Unbalanced loading 4 4-5 1.492, 0, 0 1.274, 0, 0 1.2, 0, 0 N --- Y ---,
Branch 7-8
R78 & R87 ---
4-6 2.891, 0, 0 2.844, 0, 0 2.831, 0, 0
7 7-5 1.19, 0, 0 1.61, 0, 0 1.555, 0, 0
7-8 4.149, 0, 0 2.171, 0, 0 3.912, 0, 0
9 9-8 2.431, 0, 0 2.22, 0, 0 2.021, 0, 0
9-6 0.342, 0, 0 0.342, 0, 0 0.342, 0, 0