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Table 1 Results of case studies, various faults with different fault conditions, conducted on WSCC-9 bus system

From: An adaptive supervised wide-area backup protection scheme for transmission lines protection

Fault condition Bus number where MPMU is installed Connected branches with MPMU installed bus Measurements of phasor currents from MPMU connected branch Is fault detected ?
((|IR2|& |IR3|) or (|IY2|& |IY3|) or (|IB2|& |IB3|)) > 0
(Y/N)
|IEHC| Parent bus,
Faulty branch between two buses
Relays to be supervised Fault type classified
|IR1|, |IR2|, |IR3| |IY1|, |IY2|, |IY3| |IB1|, |IB2|, |IB3|
L-G fault in branch 4–5 with FR = 100Ω,
and FIA = 720 at 80 km from BUS-4
4 4-5 3.23, 0.89, 0.41 1.23, 0, 0 1.26, 0, 0 Y 0.993 BUS-4,
Branch 4-5
R45 & R54 RG
4-6 3.56, 0.09, 0.063 3.98, 0, 0 4.03, 0, 0 0.108
7 7-5 4.09, 0.423, 0.34 2.64, 0, 0 2.68, 0, 0 0.54
7-8 1.71, 0.114, 0.09 2.15, 0, 0 2.18, 0, 0 0.145
9 9-8 0.26, 0.05, 0.04 0.24, 0, 0 0.19, 0, 0 0.064
9-6 1.99, 0.216, 0.19 1.72, 0, 0 1.74, 0, 0 0.285
L-L fault in branch 9–8 with FR = 0Ω and FIA = 00 at 50 km from BUS-9 4 4-5 0.73, 0.093, 0.07 1.79, 0.09, 0.07 1.22, 0, 0 Y 0.161 BUS-9,
Branch 9-8
R98 & R89 RY
4-6 2.97, 0.096, 0.08 2.07, 0.1, 0.08 2.55, 0, 0 0.178
7 7-5 5.0, 0.289, 0.217 3.27, 0.29, 0.22 2.172, 0, 0 0.511
7-8 10.77, 0.77, 0.19 12.2, 0.87, 0.29 3.96, 0, 0 1.209
9 9-8 13.8, 1.081, 0.77 13.9, 1.08, 0.78 0.244, 0, 0 1.88
9-6 2.41, 0.266, 0.18 3.89, 0.27, 0.18 1.67, 0, 0 0.455
L-L-G fault in branch 4–6 with FR = 45Ω and FIA = 1620 at 50 km from BUS-4 4 4-5 1.73, 0.276, 0.1 1.61, 0.24, 0.05 1.28, 0, 0 Y 0.382 BUS-4,
Branch 4-6
R46 & R64 RYG
4-6 4.57, 1.399, 0.39 4.4, 1.074, 0.18 1.281, 0, 0 1.845
7 7-5 1.01, 0.36, 0.024 1.86, 0.32, 0.01 2.55, 0, 0 0.484
7-8 0.87, 0.345, 0.12 0.78, 0.3, 0.08 0.278, 0, 0 0.479
9 9-8 4.24, 0.36, 0.101 4.34, 0.29, 0.02 1.891, 0, 0 0.476
9-6 4.12, 1.044, 0.34 4.3, 0.99, 0.12 2.349, 0, 0 1.489
L-L-L fault in branch 7–8 with FR = 60Ω and FIA = 540 at BUS-8 4 4-5 2.06, 0.49, 0.08 2.09, 0.28, 0.02 2.01, 0.55, 0.06 Y 0.789 BUS-7,
Branch 7-8
R78 & R87 RYB
4-6 3.94, 0.198, 0.05 3.95, 0.11, 0.02 3.91, 0.19, 0.03 0.304
7 7-5 1.34, 0.55, 0.167 1.46, 0.4, 0.05 1.26, 0.67, 0.22 0.994
7-8 5.84, 1.89, 0.361 5.77, 1.18, 0.17 1.26, 2.19, 0.37 3.176
9 9-8 2.39, 0.938, 0.16 2.45, 0.58, 0.03 2.34, 1.09, 0.14 1.571
9-6 0.26, 0.18, 0.052 0.25, 0.15, 0.01 0.25, 0.24, 0.06 0.344
No Fault Condition 4 4-5 1.091, 0, 0 1.091, 0, 0 1.091, 0, 0 N --- --- --- ---
4-6 2.129, 0, 0 2.129, 0, 0 2.129, 0, 0
7 7-5 2.719, 0, 0 2.719, 0, 0 2.719, 0, 0
7-8 1.722, 0, 0 1.722, 0, 0 1.722, 0, 0
9 9-8 2.226, 0, 0 2.226, 0, 0 2.226, 0, 0
9-6 0.264, 0, 0 0.203, 0, 0 0.251, 0, 0