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Table 1 Performance of conventional (CON) and modified (MOD) distance relay with the presence of SSSC and SCC

From: Active power based distance protection scheme in the presence of series compensators

  Fault distance from R A 310 km 350 km 400 km 450 km  
Method CON MOD CON MOD CON MOD CON MOD
With SSSC A–G Fault V Ref  = 0.1 p.u 149 Ω 0.039 Ω 147 Ω 0.033 Ω 144 Ω 0.037 Ω 140 Ω 0.125 Ω Calculated by (16)
V Ref  = 0.3 p.u 116 Ω 0.046 Ω 115 Ω 0.022 Ω 114 Ω 0.020 Ω 112 Ω 0.005 Ω
V Ref  = - 0.1 p.u 183 Ω 0.032 Ω 180 Ω 0.038 Ω 176 Ω 0.043 Ω 170 Ω 0.040 Ω
V Ref  = - 0.3 p.u 112 Ω 0.023 Ω 107 Ω 0.016 Ω 100 Ω 0.134 Ω 91.8 Ω 0.024 Ω
A–B Fault V Ref  = 0.1 p.u 3.53 Ω 0.012 Ω 4.3 Ω 0.004 Ω 5.46 Ω 0.003 Ω 6.69 Ω 0.004 Ω
V Ref  = 0.3 p.u 15.2 Ω 0.026 Ω 17.8 Ω 0.038 Ω 21.2 Ω 0.018 Ω 24.7 Ω 0.039 Ω
V Ref  = - 0.1 p.u 2.30 Ω 0.018 Ω 2.5 Ω 0.002 Ω 3.67 Ω 0.213 Ω 4.18 Ω 0.114 Ω
V Ref  = - 0.3 p.u 11.7 Ω 0.018 Ω 13.3 Ω 0.034 Ω 16.1 Ω 0.007 Ω 19.1 Ω 0.101 Ω
With SCC A–G Fault 20% Compensation 7.25 Ω 0.004 Ω 7.24 Ω 0.010 Ω 7.28 Ω 0.027 Ω 7.48 Ω 0.040 Ω
50% Compensation 18.3 Ω 0.009 Ω 18.3 Ω 0.013 Ω 18.5 Ω 0.026 Ω 18.9 Ω 0.038 Ω
70% Compensation 25.5 Ω 0.012 Ω 25.9 Ω 0.020 Ω 26.3 Ω 0.032 Ω 26.8 Ω 0.052 Ω
A–B Fault 20% Compensation 11.4 Ω 0.021 Ω 11.5 Ω 0.027 Ω 11.4 Ω 0.048 Ω 11.5 Ω 0.080 Ω
50% Compensation 28.7 Ω 0.043 Ω 28.6 Ω 0.017 Ω 28.6 Ω 0.066 Ω 28.7 Ω 0.033 Ω
70% Compensation 40.2 Ω 0.005 Ω 40.2 Ω 0.027 Ω 40.1 Ω 0.048 Ω 40.2 Ω 0.091 Ω